Allergen Sensitization And Epithelial Barriers
Sensitization to an allergen reflects the allergens ability to elicit a TH2-cell response, in which IL-4 and IL-13 drive IgE production by promoting immunoglobulin class-switch recombination in B cells,,,, .
Sensitization to allergens in the airway
Many factors affect the likelihood of developing clinically significant sensitization,: host genotype, type of allergen, allergen concentration in the environment and whether exposure occurs together with agents that can enhance the sensitization process. These agents include certain ligands of Toll-like receptors, including endotoxin, which can promote TH1-cell responses and in certain circumstances might be able to enhance the development of TH2-cell responses. Other agents that can enhance allergic sensitization are chitin, which is found in many organisms , and environmental pollutants. Another important factor is the pattern of contact of the immune system with allergens: for example, the amount, frequency and/or route of allergen exposure and the type and phenotypic characteristics of the dendritic-cell subpopulations that participate in the responses. The pattern of contact may affect whether there is a strong TH2-cell response , a TH2-cell response that is kept in check by IL-10-secreting, and perhaps other, regulatory T cells,,, a modified TH2-cell response that results in high concentrations of allergen-specific IgG4 or another form of immunological tolerance.
You May Also Need To Stay Away From
If you have allergies, try to stay away from the allergens that cause them. If you are allergic to many things, think about being tested for specific allergens. Ask your healthcare provider if you need to stay away from any of these:
Pollen. This is a fine powder made by trees, grasses, and weeds.
Try to learn what types of pollen affect you the most. Pollen levels change during the year.
Don’t do outdoor activities when pollen levels are high. Use air conditioning. Don’t open the windows in your home and car.
Animal dander. This is shed by animals with fur or feathers. The particles can float through the air. They stick to carpet, clothing, and furniture.
Wash your hands and clothes after handling pets.
Dust mites. These are tiny bugs too small to see. They live in mattresses, bedding, carpets, curtains, and indoor dust.
Wash bedding in hot water each week.
Cover mattresses and pillows with special mite-proof cases.
Mold. This grows in damp places such as bathrooms, basements, and closets.
Use an exhaust fan while bathing. Or leave a window open in the bathroom.
Use a dehumidifier in damp places.
Allergic Asthma: Symptoms And Treatment
Ashley A. Sullivan, MSN FNPStudent, Samuel Merritt University, Oakland, CaRN, California Pacific Medical Center
Natalya M. Kushnir, MDDirector, Allergy and immunology Clinic of East BayBerkeley, CA
H. Henry Li, MD, PhDFAAAAI, FACAAIInstitute for Asthma and AllergyWheaton and Chevy Chase Maryland
Michael A. Kaliner, MD FAAAAIMedical Director, Institute for Asthma and AllergyChevy Chase and Wheaton, MarylandProfessor of Medicine, George Washington University School of MedicineWashington DC
Don’t Miss: What Allergy Medicine Is Stronger Than Zyrtec
How Does A Doctor Diagnose The Cause Of Wheezing
If you visit your doctor with wheezing symptoms, theyll likely begin by giving you a physical exam to rule out possible health conditions. If your doctor finds abnormalities with your lungs and airways, theyll measure how much air moves in and out as you breathe with lung function tests.
Before and after performing pulmonary tests, your doctor will have you take a medication called a bronchodilator that opens up your airways. Theyll use special medical devices that you breathe into to perform the following tests:
- Spirometry. This measures how well your lungs function compared to healthy lungs.
- Peak flow. This test that measures how hard you can breathe out. If your airways are narrowing, this number will be lower than expected.
Additional tests to diagnose the cause of wheezing include:
Your doctor will analyze the results of your tests to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.
If they suspect you have allergies, your doctor may ask you to keep a detailed diary of the foods you eat, symptoms, and possible allergy triggers other than food. If diagnostic tests suggest you have asthma, your doctor will classify its severity using a symptom-based scale:
What Are Interstitial Lung Diseases
Interstitial lung diseases comprise more than 200 lung disorders that primarily affect the tissue around the air sacs, called the interstitium. These diseases many of them rare lead to respiratory symptoms similar to asthma or COPD, such as coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath. They also decrease lung volume and function, and cause inflammation and scarring that make it difficult to breathe.
Also Check: Antihistamine Cause Diarrhea
What Is Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
When scar tissue forms in the body, the medical term is fibrosis and when scarring happens in the lungs, its pulmonary fibrosis. Many cases of pulmonary fibrosis are idiopathic, meaning the cause is unknown.
IPF is a very serious condition that is usually found in adults middle-aged and older. The lungs arent able to transport oxygen and eventually, the patient can no longer breathe. In addition to scarring, some experience thickening tissue in the lungs and this makes it hard for the lungs to work.
COVID-19 Info Center –>
What Tests Are Available For Farmer’s Lung
There is no single, simple test to distinguish between Farmer’s Lung and other types of lung diseases. The most important evidence for Farmer’s Lung is the history of exposure to dust from moldy hay or other moldy crops and the development of signs and symptoms 4 to 8 hours later. This awareness is why it is so important for a doctor to know if a patient with shortness of breath has been exposed to moldy crops.
A physician may request a number of tests including:
- a lung x-ray,
Also Check: Does Twix Have Nuts
How To Protect Your Lungs From Seasonal Allergies
Check the outdoor air quality levels and pollution forecasts before you venture outside. If you do go outside, scope out the environment for obvious allergy triggers.
Do gardening and lawn maintenance in the early morning or in the evening, while pollen counts are at their lowest.
Stay away from citronella candles, bug sprays, strong-smelling candles, and other seasonal products that can irritate your lungs. Opt for mosquito repellants in lotion form rather than in sprays.
Use medications as prescribed and keep your allergy medications handy.
Consult with a medical professional. Doctors can diagnose seasonal allergies, prescribe medications, and recommend imaging tests to evaluate the health of your lungs. For more information, make an appointment today with Virtual Imaging, Inc. at .
How You Get A Diagnosis
To find out if you have hypersensitivity pneumonitis, your doctor will want to know about the kinds of dust you may have been in contact with. They’ll ask you questions like:
- Do you have any pet birds?
- Do you have a hot tub?
- Have you been around any water damage, especially from a humidifier, heater, or air conditioner?
Your answers to these questions will also help your doctor figure out the best treatment.
Your doctor will also listen for abnormal sounds in your lungs and will check the oxygen levels in your blood. You may also get tests like:
Also Check: Are Twix Peanut Free
Indoor Environmental Quality: Health Problems Mold
Health problems associated with excessive damp conditions and mold include:
Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
- Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
- CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance on other federal or private website.
What Are The Types Of Rhinitis
There are several types of rhinitis:
- Allergic rhinitis is caused by allergies to substances called allergens.
- Seasonal allergic rhinitis is sometimes called hay fever. But, people with seasonal allergic rhinitis do not have to have a fever and do not have to be exposed to hay to develop this condition. It is an allergic reaction to pollen from trees, grasses and weeds. This type of rhinitis occurs mainly in the spring and fall, when pollen from trees, grasses and weeds are in the air.
- Perennial allergic rhinitis is caused by allergens that are present all year long. The primary causes of this type of rhinitis are allergies to dust mites, mold, animal dander and cockroach debris.
- Non-allergic rhinitis is not caused by allergens. Smoke, chemicals or other irritating environmental conditions may provoke non-allergic rhinitis. Hormonal changes, physical defects of the nose and the overuse of nose sprays may also cause it. Sometimes medications cause it. Often, the cause of this type of rhinitis is not well understood. But it is common in patients with non-allergic asthma. The symptoms are similar to allergy symptoms.
- Infectious rhinitis is possibly the most common type of rhinitis. It is also known as the common cold or upper respiratory infection . Colds occur when a cold virus settles into the mucous membranes of the nose and sinus cavities and causes an infection.
Recommended Reading: Generic Brand For Zyrtec
What Causes Pain In The Lungs
What causes chest pain in the lung area? To be clear, lung pain is not a conditionit is a symptom.
If you feel rib pain or chest pain, this may be related to any organ system within regions of the abdomen and chest. This includes the intestinal tract, heart, and, yes, the lungs.
The following are 15 conditions that may be the cause of your chest or lung pain. It is important to note that if you experience the symptoms associated with the conditions below and your chest or lung pain persists, be sure to visit your doctor.
On that note, lets get started with what causes chest painor that pain in the lungs.
How Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Affects Your Body
When you inhale the dust that you are allergic to, you wont notice any problems the first time. Some people develop symptoms after inhaling a lot the dust all at once or after inhaling small amounts over and over again. Tiny air sacs in the lungs can become irritated and may fill with fluid. If you stop inhaling the allergen, the irritation can get better in a few days. If you keep inhaling those allergens, the lung irritation continues. Parts of your lung can develop scar tissue. When your lungs have scar tissue, it may be hard to breathe normally.
Its important to catch this disease early so that you dont have permanent lung damage:
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis can be a serious problem for people whose lungs become scarred.
- Scarred lungs can occur if the disease continues, and it is permanent.
- Unfortunately, there is no cure or treatment for long-term hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Don’t Miss: Is Phenylephrine A Antihistamine
Back Up: Why Do We Cough Anyway
Coughing is a natural response to irritation in your throat or airways. To put it simply, receptors in the throat, trachea, and lungs respond and lead to activation of the cough center in the brain, explains Clifford Bassett, M.D., founder and medical director of Allergy and Asthma Care of New York.
Coughing is an essential defense mechanism, he says, and its your bodys way of pushing any unwanted stuff out, including pollen, mucus, and pieces of food, to make more room for air to get through.
Icles That Cause Problems
You can breathe in troublesome particles in your home, at work, or almost any other place you usually go. It may take months or years before you become allergic to them.
Some sources of particles that can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis include:
- Animal fur
- Fungus that grows in air conditioners, humidifiers, and heating systems
- Bird droppings and feathers
- Mold that grows on hay, straw, or grain animal feed
- Bacteria in water vapor from hot tubs
You may be more likely to get hypersensitivity pneumonitis if you have a job that puts you in contact with these particles, like farming, veterinary work, and lumber mill operations. But most people who breathe them in won’t get the lung disease, so experts think certain genes play a role.
You May Like: Claritin Allergy Pills
Can An Allergy Attack Damage My Lungs
While most allergy sufferers experience a runny nose or itchy eyes when their symptoms act up, some patients may also experience trouble breathing.
In light of the current health pandemic, its important to keep your respiratory system as healthy as possible to prevent any adverse reactions. Keep reading to learn how your allergies can affect your lung capacity and how our specialists at Center for Allergy and Asthma of Georgia can help treat your symptoms.
Ruling Out An Emergency
Most importantly, your doctor will determine whether your condition is an immediate threat to your health or whether it is more of a chronic issue.
Initial diagnostic strategies include a physical examination that assesses your respiratory rate and effort. Your doctor will look for signs like whether you are struggling to breathe and whether you are using accessory muscles to breathe, such as the muscles in your neck. These signs suggest that you could be at risk of a sudden decline and might need respiratory support soonâeven before the cause of your lung inflammation is identified.
Additionally, your oxygen level will be checked, either with a pulse oximeter, arterial blood gas test, or both. Low oxygen saturation suggests a need for urgent intervention, such as supplemental oxygen.
Also Check: Cetirizine For Itching
Questions To Ask Your Health Care Provider
Making notes before your visit and taking along a trusted family member or friend can help you through the first appointment with your doctor. The following are questions you can ask your health care provider:
- I have hypersensitivity pneumonitis from workplace dust. Is it safe for me to continue working?
- Are there things I cant do at work?
- Do I have to give up my pet birds?
- Should I stay out of hot tubs?
- Can my family members get the disease if I have it?
- What tests will I need to find out if I have hypersensitivity pneumonitis?
- How often should I get lung function tests?
- How often should I get chest X-rays and CT scans?
- Do I need to be on medications ?
Allergy Triggers In Your Home
Having an allergic reaction to things in your home may affect you more if you live with a long-term lung condition. On this page we cover the type of allergies you might get and what you can do to help yourself.
You may find you develop allergies to things in your home such as dust mites, pets and mould spores. If you think you have an allergy, tell your GP. They will be able to advise you if you need treatment or they may refer you to a specialist allergy clinic to be tested.
If youve developed an allergy to something in your home, youll usually get itchy and runny eyes, a runny nose and inflamed, swollen sinuses. Breathing through your nose can be difficult too, and you might have a cough. If you have asthma, your symptoms might get worse.
Also Check: Zyrtec Allergy Pills
What Causes Wheezing In People With Allergies
Allergies occur when the body reacts abnormally to certain substances that are otherwise harmless. When the body comes into contact with these substances, the immune system begins producing antibodies. This leads to the production of other chemicals in the body, like histamine. These chemicals cause allergy symptoms along with inflammation. The reason the body attacks some substances in some people but not others isnt fully understood.
For some people, allergic reactions affect the lungs and airways. This can lead to asthma symptoms, including wheezing.
Wheezing can sometimes be a sign of a serious problem. Call your doctor if:
- youre experiencing wheezing, even mild wheezing, for the first time
- your wheezing is recurrent
- youre wheezing but have no history of allergies
You should get immediate emergency care if the wheezing:
- is accompanied by difficulty breathing, rapid breathing, or bluish skin color
- starts suddenly after youre stung by a bee, have taken medication, or have eaten an allergy-causing food
- starts after you choke on a small object or piece of food
- is accompanied by hives or swelling of your lips or face
Allergy And Geneenvironment Interactions
Many features of allergic inflammation resemble those of the inflammation that results from immune responses to infection with enteric helminths or from cutaneous responses to the bites of ectoparasites such as ticks. Similarities to aspects of immune responses to parasites or environmental allergens have also been identified, notably that both involve TH2 cells and are associated with antigen-specific IgE. These similarities have led to the idea that in allergic disorders the immune system is tricked into reacting to otherwise inconsequential allergens in the same way as it does to signals derived from enteric helminths or ectoparasites.
The molecular mechanisms underlying the hygiene hypothesis continue to be explored,, but there can be no doubt that the recent marked increase in allergic disorders reflects recent changes in the interactions between the external environment and those individuals who are genetically predisposed to develop allergic diseases. Accordingly, many researchers are attempting to understand the geneenvironment interactions that promote the development, increase the severity or limit the resolution of allergic inflammation,. There is already evidence that exposure to the same microbial products can have the opposite effect on an individuals propensity to develop allergic disorders, depending on an individuals genotype.
Recommended Reading: Is Sore Throat A Sign Of Allergies