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Are Allergies Viral Or Bacterial

What Causes The Sneezing And Wheezing

Seasonal Allergies – Cough and Cold Viral and Bacterial Infections | Precaution | Treatment

You can be allergic to many things. Common allergens include:

  • dust mites
  • a protein found in the dander , saliva , urine , or other things from some animals
  • grass, flower, and tree pollen
  • mold and mildew
  • foods, such as milk, wheat, soy, eggs, nuts, seafood, and legumes , which include peas, beans, and peanuts
  • latex

Which Is A Bacterial Infection Of The Top Layer Of The Skin

Impetigo is a bacterial infection of the top layer of skin called the epidermis. It is highly contagious and more commonly seen in children than adults. The hallmark of impetigo is a honey-colored crust.

Eczema and hives, both of which are related to allergies, are two of the most common types of skin rashes. If your skin condition is the result of an allergy, an allergist can diagnose and treat your condition, so you can live life to the fullest.

Increased Airway Inflammation And Airway Hyperresponsiveness

Robinson et al. studied the effects of RSV infection in guinea-pigs previously sensitized to OVA via the airways, monitoring airway responsiveness to acetylcholine and airway inflammation. Both sensitization alone and RSV infection alone resulted in AHR and airway inflammation with epithelial necrosis, airway wall oedema, mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates, bronchoalveolar lymphoid tissue hyperplasia and goblet cell metaplasia. RSV infection in allergic animals further increased AHR and airway inflammation, particularly promoting airway epithelial necrosis. The authors concluded that prior sensitization potentiated the physiological and structural changes associated with RSV infection and posited that an established allergic diathesis may increase the severity of RSV infection in children.

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How Are Infections Diagnosed

Sometimes your doctor may be able to diagnose your condition based on your medical history and your symptoms.

For example, conditions like measles or chickenpox have very characteristic symptoms that can be diagnosed with a simple physical examination.

Additionally, if theres a current epidemic of a particular disease, your doctor will factor that into their diagnosis. An example is influenza, which causes seasonal epidemics in the cold months of every year.

If your doctor wants to know what type of organism may be causing your condition, they may take a sample to culture. Samples that can be used for culture vary by the suspected condition, but they can include:

Why See An Allergist For A Sinus Infection


If you get sinus infections often, then it is important to identify the cause of the inflammation. Chronic sinusitis that is not treated can cause ear and upper and lower respiratory infections. When these infections start to interfere with your enjoyment of life, then its time to get help. An allergist is trained to identify allergy triggers that may be making your sinus infections occur more often. Our highly trained staff can help you find a solution that helps you take back control and live sinus infection-free.

Schedule an appointment at one of our local offices with a board-certified allergist to start a path to living without sinus infections.

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When To See A Doctor About Eye Allergies

Though allergic conjunctivitis isnt contagious and wont cause eye damage, its important to know for sure that you dont have another type of conjunctivitis or eye infection. Eye allergy symptoms can often be indistinguishable from those of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis and other serious eye infections.

If your symptoms are severe or last more than a week or so, you should talk to your doctor. Most doctors will recommend having an exam to rule out bacterial conjunctivitis and other infections, as well as to make sure you receive the proper treatment. Plus, if you have severe or chronic eye allergies, your doctor may be able to prescribe a stronger antihistamine or eyedrops to help relieve your symptoms.

If you dont already have an eye doctor you see regularly, we have some great information available for you on how to choose the right eye doctor for your needs.

The American Optometric Association recommends that everyone should have a comprehensive eye exam every one to two years, depending on age. So, whether you need relief from eye allergies or its just been a while since your last eye exam, find an experienced eye doctor near you and schedule an appointment.

Schedule an exam

How Can Allergy Symptoms Be Treated By A Doctor

Allergists, like Dr. Kevin Farnam, MD, are medical doctors who specialize in the treatment of allergies and asthma. These specially trained clinicians can treat your stubborn allergy symptoms by first, diagnosing, and then prescribing medications that can help.

Many mild allergy cases can be treated without seeing a doctor. When allergies interfere with your day-to-day activities, you can take back control of your life by seeing an allergist.

An allergist can treat all kinds of allergy problems including:

  • Allergic rhinitis or hay fever is a reaction that occurs primarily from environmental allergens
  • Anaphylaxis is rare and a potentially fatal allergic reaction caused by triggers such as food, a medication, or an insect sting
  • Asthma is an allergy symptom that causes muscle spasms in a persons breathing airway that blocks air to the lungs
  • Atopic or contact dermatitis are allergies that cause hives or dermatitis on the skin

Visiting an allergist could include:

  • A complete history and physical exam
  • Allergy testing to see what is causing your symptoms
  • Education to help prevent allergies by avoiding them
  • Medication to treat symptoms
  • Allergy shots to alleviate symptoms

You should see an allergist if your allergies are causing chronic sinus infections, difficulty breathing, or the discomfort of sneezing, wheezing, or other symptoms that disrupt your life.

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Allergies And Sinus Infections

Similar to allergies, a sinus infection can interfere with your daily life and your overall quality of life. A sinus infection can be caused by bacteria, a virus, or in some cases, a fungus in your sinuses. Many people with allergies have inflamed nasal passages, leading to a sinus infection if left untreated.

More On Treatment Of Allergies

Conjunctivitis, pink eye, virus or bacteria, eye infection – A State of Sight #35

Allergy symptoms can be decreased or avoided when the allergy irritant is known.

Allergies can be treated with both over-the-counter and prescription medications, including:

The most common risk factors for different forms of pink eye include:

  • Exposure to someone with bacterial or viral pink eye
  • Exposure to an irritant
  • Overwearing contacts, especially gas permeable lenses

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Bacterial Infection And Asthma

Bacterial respiratory infection at early childhood is closely associated with asthma development. While most studies have referenced viruses such as rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus as important inducers of asthma in early life, we now know that bacterial colonisation also drives disease exacerbation . Among several bacterial species that have been implicated in asthma development, Haemophilus influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most cited .

Nasal Allergies Or A Sinus Infection Similarities Differences And Treatments

  • 12 Nov, 2020

Do you have allergies or a sinus infection? The symptoms ofthese two common issues often overlap – making it difficult to self-treat the problem.Before you try a home remedy or over the counter option, take a look at thedifferences between allergies and an infection and the best ways to findrelief.

What Are the Similarities?

Nasal allergies and sinus infections often have the same orsimilar symptoms. While the two conditions have different underlying causes,patients with either issue may experience:

  • Pain or discomfort. Inflammation and irritation inside the sinus cavities from an allergic reaction to a seasonal or another trigger or a viral or bacterial infection can cause pain above or below the eye area.
  • Nasal discharge. Drainage may come out of your nose or flow down the back of your throat with either condition. Even though both issues can cause nasal drainage, infections typically cause green, yellow, or cloudy-looking mucous.
  • Nasal congestion. Some patients experience nasal congestion, or a stuffy nose, with either sinus-related issues or allergies.

Along with these symptoms, nasal allergies and a viral orbacterial sinus infection may also cause a cough – especially if you haveuncontrolled post-nasal drip.

What Are the Differences?

While the symptoms may seem similar, they don’t all overlap. The top differences between an allergy and a sinus infection include:

What Are the Treatments?

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Why Do Some Kids Get Allergies

People may be born with a genetic tendency to have allergies, which means they are more likely to get them than other people are. Many allergies are hereditary passed to kids in the genes they get from their parents so you have a better chance of having allergies if your mom or dad or other people in your family have them.

People can develop allergies when they are babies, children, teens, or adults, although allergies often decrease in older people.

Many people outgrow food allergies. Other allergies can last your whole life, although they may be less severe or more severe at different points in your life.

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What to do when you have


Weiss A, Brinser JH, Nazar-Stewart V. Acute conjunctivitis in childhood. J Pediatr. Jan 1993 122:10-14.

Fitch CP, Rapoza PA, Owens S, et al. Epidemiology and diagnosis of acute conjunctivitis at an inner-city hospital. Ophthalmology. Aug 1989 96:1215-1220.

Rietveld RP, ter Riet G, Bindels PJ, Sloos JH, van Weert HC. Predicting bacterial cause in infectious conjunctivitis: cohort study on informativeness of combinations of signs and symptoms. BMJ. Jul 24 2004 329:206-210. doi:10.1136/bmj.38128.631319.AE

Morrow GL, Abbott RL. Conjunctivitis. Am Fam Physician. Feb 15 1998 57:735-746.

Rodier F, Gautrin D, Ghezzo H, Malo JL. Incidence of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and risk factors in animal-health apprentices. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Dec 2003 112:1105-1111. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2003.08.011

Bousquet J, Khaltaev N, Cruz AA, et al. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma 2008 update LEN and AllerGen). Allergy. Apr 2008 63 Suppl 86:8-160. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2007.01620.x

Singh K, Axelrod S, Bielory L. The epidemiology of ocular and nasal allergy in the United States, 1988-1994. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Oct 2010 126:778-783 e776. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.06.050

Bilkhu PS, Wolffsohn JS, Naroo SA, Robertson L, Kennedy R. Effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments for acute seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Ophthalmology. Jan 2014 121:72-78. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.08.007

Proprietor: Warren Turner – B.Pharm M.P.S M.R.Pharm.S

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Viral Vs Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Differences Based On Causes

Viral Conjunctivitis: This type of conjunctivitis mainly arises from air borne viruses, which spread through coughing or sneezing, and can catch anyone irrespective of coming in contact with an affected person or surface. Such an infection may also expose the body to common upper respiratory infections, such as measles, flu or common cold.

Bacterial Conjunctivitis: This type of conjunctivitis is caused by bacteria that infect the eye through different means of contamination. In most cases the bacteria are spread through coming in contact with an infected person, or exposure to other contaminated surfaces. Other infections such as sinus or ear infection can also lead to Bacterial Conjunctivitis. The most common types of bacteria that causes Conjunctivitis include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Pseudomonas, and Moraxella species.

Although These Conditions Are Usually Easy To Identify They Can Sometimes Mimic One Another

Ask the Right Questions

When its difficult to determine whether the problem is dry eye or allergy, symptoms may be a tip-off. Dry eye typically produces burning, scratching or foreign body sensation and possibly light sensitivity allergy is typically associated with tearing and itching and may occur in concert with a seasonal or environmental allergen. Above left: An acute case of allergic conjunctivitis. Center: Allergic conjunctivitis secondary to eye makeup, which was not immediately obvious on examination. Right: Allergic conjunctivitis with a swollen contunctiva.

Allergy vs. Dry Eye

In addition to signs and symptoms, diagnostic dyes can help distinguish between dry eye and allergy allergic conjunctivitis rarely produces staining on the surface of the eye. Above left: Classic inferior staining in dry eye. Center and right: Surface exposure in dry eye.

Beyond the Exam and History

Above left: Inferior staining in a dry eye patient. Right: A dry eye showing diffuse staining.

Uncovering Infection

Bacterial infection often presents with a purulent discharge. Above left: Papillary conjunctivitis with bacterial infection. The lid has a lumpy, bumpy appearance. Center: Bacterial conjunctivitis with a mucous discharge. Right: Plugged glands in bacterial blepharoconjunctivitis.

Viral vs. Bacterial

Above left: Bacterial conjunctivitis produces a lower lid cul-de-sac reaction with discharge. Right: A marked blood vessel conjunctival reaction in bacterial conjunctivitis.

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Viral Vs Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Differences Worth Knowing

One of the extremely widespread and common disorders pertaining to the eye is the Conjunctivitis, or as it is commonly called the Pink Eye condition. In conjunctivitis, there is inflammation of the transparent membrane that covers the white part of the eye called the conjunctiva and the inner most part of the eyelid. It is this infection that makes the eye extremely pink in color, which becomes its most noticeable symptom and thus the name Pink Eye. The cause of such an infection can either be infectious or non-infectious. The more common cause is infectious, which include the viral, the bacterial or the fungal infections whereas the non-infectious causes of the same include allergies, foreign bodies or exposure to chemicals.

There are mainly the viral and the bacterial conjunctivitis, which affect dominantly, and it is important to understand the basic differences between these two types of infection to make sure that the diagnosis and the treatment are on point.

Enhancement Of Allergic Sensitization By Respiratory Viral Infections

Allergic Conjunctivitis

Since the 1980s, researchers have studied animal models to test the hypothesis that infection with respiratory viruses can trigger and enhance allergic sensitization to inhaled antigens, as had been reported for children . Initially, the focus was on allergen-specific antibodies. Sakamoto et al. infected mice with influenza virus at doses high enough to result in bronchopneumonia. Following infection, the mice were sensitized to an aerosol of ovalbumin complexed with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin -E levels were titrated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats. Influenza infection prior to sensitization resulted in elevated OVA-specific IgE levels provided that the OVA aerosol exposure occurred during the acute infection on days 26 after infection. Sensitization 14days after infection was not enhanced in this model. More recent studies have confirmed these observations using parallel models extended by an additional allergen challenge 34weeks after primary sensitization , . Yamamoto et al. reported a transient increase in airway dendritic cell number from day 2 to day 5 of influenza infection. In mice sensitized to OVA aerosol at the time of infection, the increase in dendritic cell number persisted for up to 5weeks and was associated with high major histocompatibility complex class II expression by these cells.

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The Symptoms Of A Sinus Infection

People often assume that its possible to tell the difference between a viral and bacterial sinus infection based on the type of symptoms they experience. Unfortunately, thats not the case. Usually, the symptoms of a sinus infection are the same or very similar whether its caused by bacteria or a virus.

Common symptoms of either a viral or bacterial sinus infection include green or yellow mucous/discharge, bad breath, headache, and fever.

Bacterial Vs Viral Infection

As the names suggest, bacteria cause bacterial infections, and viruses cause viral infections.

It is important to know whether bacteria or viruses cause an infection, because the treatments differ. Examples of bacterial infections include whooping cough, strep throat, ear infection and urinary tract infection .

Viral infections include the common cold, flu, most coughs and bronchitis, chickenpox and HIV/AIDS.

It can be difficult to know what causes an infection, because viral and bacterial infections can cause similar symptoms. Your doctor may need a sample of your urine, stool or blood, or a swab from your nose or throat to see what sort of infection you have.

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Diagnosis Of Bacterial And Viral Infections

You should consult your doctor if you think you have a bacterial or viral infection. Exceptions include the common cold, which is usually not life-threatening.

In some cases, it’s difficult to determine whether an illness is viral or bacterial because many ailments — including pneumonia, meningitis, and diarrhea — can be caused by either. But your doctor may be able to determine the cause by listening to your medical history and doing a physical exam.

If necessary, they also can order a blood or urine test to help confirm a diagnosis, or a “culture test” of tissue to identify bacteria or viruses. Occasionally, a biopsy of affected tissue may be required.

Treatment Of Bacterial And Viral Infections

Bacterial Conjunctivitis Stock Vector Art &  More Images of ...

The discovery of antibiotics for bacterial infections is considered one of the most important breakthroughs in medical history. Unfortunately, bacteria are very adaptable, and the overuse of antibiotics has made many of them resistant to antibiotics. This has created serious problems, especially in hospital settings.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, and many leading organizations now recommend against using antibiotics unless there is clear evidence of a bacterial infection.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, vaccines have been developed. Vaccines have drastically reduced the number of new cases of viral diseases such as polio, measles, and chickenpox. In addition, vaccines can prevent such infections such as the flu, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus , and others.

But the treatment of viral infections has proved more challenging, primarily because viruses are relatively tiny and reproduce inside cells. For some viral diseases, such as herpes simplex virus infections, HIV/AIDS, and influenza, antiviral medications have become available. But the use of antiviral medications has been associated with the development of drug-resistant microbes.

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