Composition Of Cold Pressed Pine Oil In Comparison To Other Cold Pressed Oils
Pine nut oil is composed of 90% unsaturated fatty acids, 50% of which are PUFAs, 40% MUFAs, and 10% SFAs . Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid in pine nut oil , and oleic acid is the second most abundant fatty acid in PNO. Palmitic acid and stearic acid are the main SFAs found in PNO . While cold pressed pumpkin oil is rich in linoleic acids like pine nut oil, pecan oil, almond oil, Brazil nut oil, hazelnut oil, macadamia oil, and pistachio oil are rich in oleic acid.
Table 6. Fatty acids and tocopherols composition of some cold pressed oils.a
|Cold pressed oilsb|
- References: 1Gong and Pegg , 2Ying et al. 3Castelo-Branco, Santana, Di-Sarli, Freitas, and Torres 4Ling, Yang, Li, and Wang 5Rabrenovi, Dimi, Novakovi, Teevi, and Basi 6Parker et al. .
- PNO, pine nut oil PEO, pecan oil AO, almond oil BNO, Brazil nut oil HO, hazelnut oil MO, macadamia oil PO, pistachio oil PUO, pumpkin oil CSO, carrot seed oil.
Table 7. Content of sterols in cold pressed plant oils.
|Type of phytosterol|
Tree Nut Allergy Management
If your child has a tree nut allergy, theyll need to avoid all foods that contain the tree nut they are allergic to. Eating even a small amount of a tree nut that they are allergic to could cause them to develop an allergic reaction.
Along with peanut allergies, tree nut allergies are one of the food allergy types most likely to cause severe reactions. Since tree nut allergy reactions could become life-threatening, its vital for you and your child to have epinephrine nearby at all times. Epinephrine is the only medicine that can stop anaphylaxis.
Learn more about tree nut allergy from Food Allergy Research & Education :
Since tree nut allergies are one of the 8 major allergens in the United States, food manufacturers must clearly identify if a food contains tree nuts on the label.
A manufacturer must also point out the specific type of tree nut that a food containson the label. Theyre required to do so under federal law.
For example, if a food contains almonds, almonds must be listed as an ingredient. Its not enough for a label to just say contains tree nuts.
Even so, avoiding tree nuts can still get complicated because many foods contain hidden tree nutsand because every tree nut is different.
Some foods that may contain hidden tree nuts include:
- Baked desserts, including cookies, grain breads, macarons and pie crusts
- Frozen desserts, such as ice cream
- Other desserts, like pudding
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of A Nut Allergy
When someone with a peanut or tree nut allergy has something with nuts in it, the body releases chemicals like .
This can cause symptoms such as:
- a drop in blood pressure
- dizziness or fainting
- anxiety or a feeling something bad is happening
Reactions to foods, like peanuts and tree nuts, can be different. It all depends on the person and sometimes the same person can react differently at different times.
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What Is Life Like With Tree Nut Allergies
The outlook for a tree nut allergy depends on two things: your age and your allergy severity. Adults diagnosed with a tree nut allergy should expect it to be lifelong.
For children, the outlook is a bit different. Some children will outgrow their food allergies, including an allergy to tree nuts. Unfortunately, compared with other allergies such as egg or milk, the number of children who outgrow their tree nut allergy is quite low, around 10 percent, according to one
If My Child Is Allergic To One Tree Nut Do They Need To Avoid All Tree Nuts
Even though tree nut allergies includes allergies to many types of nuts, if someone is allergic to one tree nut, that doesnt mean they are allergic to all tree nuts.
Certain tree nuts are closely related, though.
Cashews and pistachios are closely related, and pecans and walnuts are closely related, since their proteins are very similar to each other.
Because of this, developing an allergy to one tree nut may make someone more likely to develop an allergy to a closely related tree nut. This is known as cross-reactivity.
Why does cross-reactivity happen? The proteins in closely related types of tree nuts are so similar to each other that someones immune system may start to treat these proteins exactly the same. This may cause an allergic reaction when specific IgE antibodies detect the proteins from either closely related tree nut. But not everyone with a tree nut allergy will experience cross-reactivity.
And even if cross-reactivity comes into play, many people with tree nut allergies are still only allergic to 1 or 2 types of tree nuts.
So, its worth working with an allergist to determine if your child can safely eat other types of tree nuts. Every child is differentyour allergist will help you make an individualized plan for their unique needs. Until youve talked with an allergist, though, you may decide its safest to keep your child away from all types of tree nuts.
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Foods To Avoid If You Have A Tree Nut Allergy
Thanks to the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act , U.S. packaged food items are required to clearly state on the label if they contain tree nuts. This stipulates that the specific nut be identified.
Bottom line? Reading labels need to be a mandatory part of your lifestyle from the minute you or someone in your family is diagnosed with a tree nut allergen. Youll notice some food labels have jargon to the effect of made in a facility where tree nuts are processed. Again, whether or not you need to avoid those foods is something to be discussed with an allergist. Its always better to err on the side of caution, though, and steer clear.
A person with tree nut allergies should clearly avoid foods and products containing tree nuts, as well as items that are presumed to cross-react. Its confusing we know.
But in general, the items someone with tree nut allergies should stay away from include but arent limited to:
- some ice creams
If you have any doubts about whats safe and what isnt, call your allergist ASAP. Theyre the best resource a person with nut allergies has, and they can fill in any blanks for you along the way.
Who Is At Risk Of Tree Nut Allergy
- Those with an existing peanut allergy have an increased likelihood of around 30-40% of developing a tree nut allergy as similar proteins are found in both types of nuts.
- Having an existing tree nut allergy does not automatically mean an allergy to peanuts although it is not uncommon to be allergic to both some tree nuts and peanuts.
- Infants with eczema and/or an egg allergy are more likely to develop other food allergies
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Diagnosing Tree Nut Allergies
To diagnose a tree nut allergy, the doctor will first need to rule out other conditions with similar symptoms. Patients may be asked to keep a food diary for several weeks or months to document allergic reactions to the foods they eat. This should help the doctor to identify the type of allergen. In general, all tests used to diagnose tree nut allergies are very similar to those used for other food allergies as described in the previous .
Are Pine Nuts A Common Allergen
In the world of food allergies, pine nuts are classified as a tree nut , and all tree nuts are common allergens.2 However, allergies to pine nuts are relatively rare: less than 5% of people with tree nut allergies in the United States are allergic to pine nuts.3 However, if your child is allergic to pine nuts, the reaction tends to be severe.4
Interestingly, some pine nut varieties can cause pine nut mouth which temporarily alters the way things taste. Pine nut mouth typically occurs 12 to 24 hours after consumption and can last a couple of days.5 The quirky condition is most commonly associated with the Pinus armandii or Chinese white pine variety, which is native to China.6
For more detailed information on how to introduce common food allergens, check out our guide, Introducing Allergens to Babies.
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All health-related content on this website is for informational purposes only and does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Always seek the advice of your own pediatrician in connection with any questions regarding your babys health.
FDA Acknowledges Qualified Health Claim Linking Early Peanut Introduction and Reduced Risk of Developing Peanut Allergy in 2017:
For most infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy who are already eating solid foods, introducing foods containing ground peanuts between 4 and 10 months of age and continuing consumption may reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy by 5 years of age. FDA has determined, however, that the evidence supporting this claim is limited to one study.
If your infant has severe eczema and/or egg allergy, check with your infants healthcare provider before feeding foods containing ground peanuts.
Tree Nuts And Food Labeling Laws
Tree nuts are among the most common food allergies, and as such, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires manufacturers selling foods in America to label foods containing tree nuts. The Food Allergy Labeling and Consumer Protection Act requires that manufacturers label which tree nut is in a given product.
Manufacturers are not required to mention the presence of tree nuts on manufacturing lines. Many do, however. Because of the possibility of anaphylaxis, people with tree nut allergies should avoid products that mention the possibility of tree nut cross-contamination on labels.
Remember to always read your food packaging and ingredient labels, since ingredients and manufacturing practices can change at any time.
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How Are Tree Nut Allergies Diagnosed
Since tree nut allergies can be life-threatening, getting a proper diagnosis is important.
An allergist-immunologist is a type of doctor who specializes in allergies and the immune system. They will take a medical history, ask about any previous allergic reactions you’ve had and whether you have a family history of allergy.
They may also conduct the following tests to check what kind of tree nuts you are allergic to:
Skin prick test
The gold standard for allergy testing is a skin prick test. It involves pricking your skin, inserting a small amount of the tree nut onto the skin and waiting to see if there is a reaction. If youre allergic to the tree nut, the pricked skin will become red and itchy and a bump will form.
Food challenge test
If the skin prick test does not provide a definitive diagnosis of a tree nut allergy, your doctor may order a food challenge test. In this test, you will be asked to eat only the tree nut in question, mixed with other food or in the form of capsules, in increasing amounts over several days. Your doctor will supervise the test and ask you whether you have experienced any allergic reaction. You will be instructed to take an emergency injection in case a severe allergy develops.
Foods That Contain Tree Nuts
Food that always or almost always contains tree nuts include:
- Nut meal
- Natural extracts: almond and wintergreen
There are some places where it may be difficult to avoid tree nuts. These include parties or gatherings where bowls of mixed nuts may be served.
As with many common allergens, tree nuts are sometimes found in unlikely foods, so be sure to read labels on all packaged foods before buying or eating them.
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Causes Of Tree Nut Allergies
Even the tiniest amount of tree nut protein in the ingredients of a consumed food can trigger an allergy in sensitive individuals. Less commonly, an allergic reaction can occur when touching or inhaling the tree nut protein. The most common tree nuts used in the food industry include:
- Pine nuts
Allergic people must be careful to avoid products and processed foods that contain tree nuts and ingredients with tree nut proteins such as those listed below:
- Baking mixes
- Certain vegetarian dishes
- Chinese, Malaysian, Thai, Vietnamese, African, Mexican and other ethnic dishes
- Cookies, pastries and other baked goods
- Nut butters
- Nut extracts
- Some cereals including muesli, granola and fruited cereals
- Used oils
Lotions, cosmetic creams, soaps, shampoos and conditioners may also contain tree nut proteins. People with three nut allergies can experience an allergic response to these substances by absorbing the offending protein through the skin.
There may be food products that do not normally contain tree nuts but are cross-contaminated with tree nut proteins by the machinery in factories or the appliances in restaurants. Sometimes, the food label may include a statement that the food was processed on equipment that also processes foods containing nuts, though this statement is not mandatory. When in doubt about a product, allergic individuals should better avoid using or consuming such product.
Are Pine Nuts Tree Nuts
Pine nuts are a little bit tricky because theyre not technically nuts or even tree nuts. According to the Anaphylaxis Campaign, people who are allergic to tree nuts arent usually allergic to pine nuts and vice versa, because they belong to different classifications. However, this isnt a hard-and-fast rule, as food allergies can vary from person to person. If youre allergic to tree nuts, proceed with caution with pine nuts, just in case.
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What Is The Government Of Canada Doing About Priority Food Allergens Gluten Sources And Added Sulphites
The Government of Canada is committed to providing Canadians with the information they need to make safe and healthy food choices. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada work closely with municipal, provincial and territorial partners and industry to meet this goal.
The CFIA enforces Canada’s labelling laws and works with associations, distributors, food manufacturers and importers to ensure complete and appropriate labelling of all foods. The CFIA recommends that food companies establish effective allergen controls to prevent the occurrence of undeclared allergens and cross-contamination. The CFIA has developed guidelines and tools to aid them in developing these controls. When the CFIA becomes aware of a potential hazard associated with a food, such as undeclared allergens, Health Canada is asked to assess the situation. When a serious risk is identified, the food product is recalled from the marketplace and a public warning is issued. The CFIA has also published several advisories to industry and consumers regarding allergens in food.
More information on the regulations that enhance the labelling of food allergens, gluten sources and added sulphites can be found on the Health Canada website.
If you come across a food that you think is improperly labelled, contact the CFIA and provide information about the product.
Report a food safety or labelling concern.
Living With A Tree Nut Allergy
As there is currently no cure for a tree nut allergy, the complete avoidance of tree nut and foods which contain tree nuts is an important part of living with a tree nut allergy. Tree nuts are widely used in a variety of foods and are a common ingredient in different types of cooking like Asian, Chinese, Indian, Thai and Vietnamese cuisine. They can also be found in the following foods baked goods, cereals, ice cream and desserts.
- Nut butters
- Nut milks
- Biscuits, pastries, and cakes with nuts as ingredients e.g., chocolate brownies
- Mixed nuts and raisins
- Salads with added nuts or nut oils
It is important to carefully check the ingredients list on food items . Avoid foods which contain tree nuts which could be under any of the following names, some are not as obvious as you would think!
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Living With Peanut Or Tree Nut Allergy
If allergy skin testing shows that your child has a peanut or tree nut allergy, an will provide guidelines on what to do.
The best way to prevent a reaction is to avoid peanuts and tree nuts. Avoiding these nuts means more than just not eating them. It also means not eating any foods that might contain tree nuts or peanuts as ingredients.
The best way to be sure a food is nut-free is to read the food label. Manufacturers of foods sold in the United States must state on their labels whether the foods contain peanuts or tree nuts. Check the ingredients list first.
After checking the ingredients list, look on the label for phrases like these:
- “may contain tree nuts”
- “produced on shared equipment with tree nuts or peanuts”
Although these foods might not use nut ingredients, the warnings are there to let people know they might contain traces of nuts. That can happen through “cross-contamination,” when nuts get into a food product because it is made or served in a place that uses nuts in other foods. Manufacturers are not required to list peanuts or tree nuts on the label when there might be accidental cross-contamination, but many do.
Some of the highest-risk foods for people with peanut or tree nut allergy include:
What Happens To Patients With Nut Allergy
When people have nut allergies, their bodys immune system, which normally fights infections, overreacts to proteins in the nut. If people eat something that contains nuts, their body thinks these proteins are harmful invaders and responds by working very hard to fight off the invader. This causes an allergic reaction.
Even a small amount of peanut or tree nut protein can set off a reaction. However, allergic reactions from breathing in small particles of nuts or peanuts are rare. Thats because people usually have to eat the food to cause a reaction. Most foods containing peanuts dont allow enough of the protein to escape into the air to cause a reaction. Just the smell of foods containing peanuts wont cause a reaction because the scent doesnt contain the protein.
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