The Relevance Of Decreased Physical Activity And Changed Breathing Patterns To The Rise In Pediatric Asthma
One of the most obvious effects of indoor entertainment was a progressive increase in the number of hours children spent sitting each day. There are a large number of secondary consequences of this change that include increased obesity, changes in diet, more exposure to indoor allergens, etc. However our main concern here is with the lungs. Any form of physical activity will lead to full expansion of the lungs, but in addition normal breathing includes periodic deep breaths or sighs. Studies on the effects of deep breathing have been of two major types:
Remarkably, regular exercise is not part of the standard treatment for asthma. This despite the fact that aerobic activity is recommended for cystic fibrosis, COPD and a wide range of cardiological conditions. Many studies have shown a positive effect of exercise on asthma or on BHR, but these have not been converted into a consistent recommendation about exercise as part of the treatment. In addition, it is not clear whether the primary effect of exercise would be to decrease the inflammation in the lungs or a physiological effect secondary to regular stretching of smooth muscle.
Why Are Food Allergies Increasing
Contributing writer for;Wake Up World
It seems everyone around is having to avoid certain foods due to allergic reactions. Whether its peanuts or milk, gluten or eggs, food allergies have become more common then ever. Food allergies used to be rare but now everyone is talking about making sure you have an;Epi Pen;in case someone has an anaphylactic reaction. As recent as the 1980s, few children had allergies. However in the 1990s more and more childrens immune systems began to overact to certain foods causing severely increased inflammation and sometimes life-threatening reactions. So why are food allergies increasing?
Next Steps In Peanut Allergy Treatments
Ongoing treatment programs aim to refine the treatment process that grew from the LEAP study, says Dr. Hong. More than 50 children with an identified peanut allergy are in the program.
The minimal goal is to help these children achieve at least bite-proof tolerance to peanuts, meaning they can consume nearly two peanut kernels without a reaction, says Dr. Hong. That protects against an accidental nibble of a food with peanuts leading to a health emergency.
Many participants, however, see their immune system response change so much that they can eat peanut products, says Dr. Hong.
The key is the age of the participants, as reactions to food allergens typically are less severe in early childhood. Their immune system is so malleable, so flexible, that they can tolerate it, notes Dr. Hong. There is this narrow window where we can do this.
The series of peanut challenges given to participants involve tiny amounts of the food. In the initial treatment cycle, for example, the daily dose is 8 milligrams of peanut protein.
Small increases follow every two weeks if there are no setbacks, says Dr. Hong. The process takes at four to six months, with maintenance dosing then continuing for at least a year.
Every uptick in peanut butter dosage takes place in an allergists office in case theres a reaction. The child is monitored for an hour after the higher dose.
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However Peanut Allergies May Be More Preventable Than Most People Think And Heres Why:
Most people discover they have a peanut allergy by accident. And more often than not, those discoveries lead to a lot of confusion and trauma for everyone involved. People who arent prepared to face peanut allergies that spring up out of the blue are at a disadvantage.
This is because:
Once people discover theyre allergic, they can proceed with caution and reduce the amount of times an allergic reaction occurs. This can effectively be done by reading the ingredients labels on food, avoiding foods that may have come in contact with peanuts, and checking ahead to see if restaurant food was prepared in peanut oil.
What all of these things have in common is that you do them AFTER the you experience your first allergic reaction.;Its the first time that has the most damaging effect. Luckily, with the technology available today, and some very determined doctors, we now can prevent that first time from ever happening.;
So how can people stay one step ahead of Americas largest food allergy?
Changes In Food Allergy Treatment Approach
As food allergy numbers began spiking in the 1990s, doctors recommended that allergenic foods such as milk, eggs and peanuts be removed from the diets of children with a high risk of allergies.
That thinking began to change, though, as research showed that eliminating specific foods did not slow the development of food allergies.
Then came the groundbreaking Learning Early About Peanut allergy study in 2015. The study found that the development of peanut allergies decreased in at-risk children with an early introduction of the food.
It was completely the opposite of what we had believed, notes Dr. Hong.
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Why Do Children Become Allergic To Peanuts
Children of any age can experience an allergic reaction to peanuts. In many cases, the first time eating a product containing peanut traces is enough to set off a reaction. The reason for the response is an overactive immune system that identifies proteins in the peanut as a threat. An antibody called immunoglobulin E is produced which causes chemicals to be released. The result is an allergic reaction one that could potentially be life-threatening.
There is no single reason why so many kids are allergic to peanuts today, but some factors that contribute to this issue are described below.
Having other allergies increases the chances of having a peanut allergy. For example, suffering from hay fever makes it more likely that you will become allergic to different foods over time.
Family History of Allergies
If other family members have a peanut allergy, there is a greater chance that a child will respond badly to the food.
Undeveloped Immune System
Peanut allergies are often experienced at a young age, when the immune system is still developing. Some kids grow out of the allergy, but many experience allergic reactions throughout their lifetime.
Lack of Vitamin D
More Children Have Food Allergies Including More Black Children
- American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
- New research suggests that peanut allergy in children has increased 21 percent since 2010, and that nearly 2.5 percent of US children may have an allergy to peanuts.
Parents often worry about peanut allergies because the reaction to peanuts can be very severe. New late-breaking research being presented at the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Annual Scientific Meeting suggests that peanut allergy in children has increased 21 percent since 2010, and that nearly 2.5 percent of U.S. children may have an allergy to peanuts.
“Peanut allergies, along with other food allergies, are very challenging for children and families,” says Ruchi Gupta, MD, MPH, ACAAI member and lead author of the study. “While 21 percent represents a large increase in the number of kids with a likely peanut allergy, the good news is that parents now have a way to potentially prevent peanut allergy by introducing peanut products to infants early after assessing risk with their pediatrician and allergist.”
New guidelines introduced in January walk parents through the process of introducing peanut-containing foods to infants that are at high, medium and low-risk for developing peanut allergies. The guidelines are based on groundbreaking research showing that high risk infants who are introduced to peanut-containing food early are significantly more likely to prevent developing a peanut allergy.
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What Parents Need To Know
Previously, the advice from allergists and pediatricians was to avoid any allergenic foods, including peanuts, until children were at least 3 years old, according to David Stukus, MD, specialist in allergy and immunology in Columbus, Ohio, and advisor to the Asthma & Allergy Foundation of America . Then, doctors realized that advice was backfiring.
The Dirty Truth About Peanut Allergies
Stop for a moment, and imagine a classic combination. Two things that just go so well together, they should never be apart. Iconic duos that usually come to mind include ketchup and mustard, Elon Musk and Tesla, Bonnie and Clyde, strawberries and cream, salt and pepper. And you can probably think of a lot more. But one of the most classic combinations in the book is without a doubt peanut butter and jelly. We’ve paired peanut butter and jelly together for decades. It feels like one doesnt belong without the other. But in this day and age, maybe the combination should be peanut butter and allergies.;
Freeze frame. Record scratch. Wait, what?
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What Is In An Environment
In conversation, people tend to use the word environment as a catchall for the great outdoors or perhaps to mean ones living space. But to epidemiologists and immunologists its much more. The womb, for instance, is one environment.
When Turvey speaks of the environment that the families enrolling in CHILD are exposed to, he breaks it down into several sub-categories. First, he sees the physical environments the home, the daycare, the level of pollution outside them; the levels of dust, mold, tobacco smoke and chemical exposures inside; and whether pets are owned.
And I think the infectious environment is important factors such as cold viruses and bacteria in a babys body, he says. He even views diet as another environment of stimuli that may influence immune responses: environment is everything were exposed to.
Turvey also describes a psycho-social environment, and here, hes largely talking about the amount of stress on the mother in pregnancy or in the home after birth. Is there, for instance, a financial burden or might her support network be lacking?
Theres evidence that stress can make asthma worse and may even set the scene for asthma predisposition in infants, he says. He thinks these aspects, even in utero, should not be underestimated.
Do The Principals Of The Dual Allergen Hypothesis Prevent Allergies
Professors Gideon Lack and George Du Toit wondered why peanut allergy was more common in the UK compared to Israel and why avoiding nuts may increase allergy. A cross-sectional investigation of Israel and the UK, with 5000 Jewish children in each cohort, found peanut allergy to be 10 fold higher in the UK. The research revealed that this was due to peanuts being introduced eight times more/in larger quantities in Israeli in early infancy as a weaning food , with the median monthly infant consumption of 7.1g compared to 0g .
Their results formed the basis of the Dual Allergen Hypothesis, which suggests early exposure to food proteins absorbed by the skin through disrupted skin barriers leads to allergic sensitisation. Contrastingly, early oral exposure during infant weaning induces tolerance . The skin, a complex, self-renewing barrier, plays a fundamental role . Disrupted skin barriers can allow for increased permeability, allowing allergen penetration .
A study by Saloga et al showed that ovalbumin applied to abraded skin of BALB/c mice caused increased anti-ovalbumin IgE levels, which revealed that sensitisation occurred through damaged, not normal skin .
The final paper was published after the learning about peanut study , showing whether early consumption of peanuts by infantsallows their immune system to tolerate them better in life .
Is there a damaging effect of the New Worlds nutrition- The Microbiome, Anti-oxidant and Dietary Fat Nutritional Hypothesis?
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Management Of Peanut Allergy: Medications And Allergy Action Plans
In the case of a severe allergic reaction adrenaline is the medication needed to treat allergic symptoms and should be given as soon as possible after symptoms of anaphylaxis are recognised.
Adrenaline autoinjectors, also known as adrenaline pens, are devices that contain the emergency medicine adrenaline that can be given in the case of a severe reaction to peanut. If you or your child are prescribed an adrenaline auto-injector it is important that you are shown how to use it by the doctor, nurse or pharmacist. These devices are available as trainer pens for the type of adrenaline pen that has been prescribed and are useful for practicing or showing others how to use them .
Expiry dates should be noted and reminder services are available from some of the adrenaline pen websites. Adrenaline auto-injectors that have been used or due to expire should be replaced immediately. Allergy medication prescribed for a child with a food allergy should be documented on a written allergy action plan for the childs school or after school clubs or activities. Allergy action plans are individual to the person, listing their food allergies and providing advice on the signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction, as well as instructions on what medication to give and when.
Allergy action plans for children can be downloaded for free from the BSACI website.;These action plans need to be completed by a Health professional.
Why Are So Many Kids Allergic To Peanuts
Ask the experts at Popular Science
ByAmanda Schupak | Published Dec 8, 2008 8:25 PM
The number of school-age kids with peanut allergies has doubled in the past decade. Yet scientists cant quite put their finger on what makes the legume such a threat or why the allergy has become so prevalent.
Theories abound, though, and most involve an overactive immune system. We have done such a good job of eliminating the threats that the immune system is supposed to manage, that its looking for something to do, says Anne Muñoz-Furlong, CEO of the nonprofit Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network. Parents feed their kids more handy snacks these days, she says, and many of those contain peanuts or their derivatives. Were bombarding the immune system with these allergens, so its attacking those instead. Indeed, food allergies in general are on the rise.
But peanuts seem to trigger especially violent immune reactions. This might be because they contain several proteins not found in most other foods, posits Robert Wood, an allergy specialist at Johns Hopkins University, and the structure of these proteins stimulates a strong immune response. Research suggests that roasting peanuts, as American companies do, might alter the proteins shape, making them an even bigger target. Allergy rates are lower in China, where its customary to boil peanuts, which damages the proteins less.
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What Foods Should I Avoid If I Have A Peanut Allergy
Adults with peanut allergies must be vigilant to avoid accidental exposure to peanuts or peanut-containing foods. Also, be mindful of any foods containing tree nuts such as walnuts, almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews and pecans; people with peanut allergies may also be allergic to tree nuts.
According to Kids with Food Allergies , around 35 percent of American toddlers with peanut allergies will also develop tree nut allergies. For those with severe peanut allergies, also be wary of cross-contamination and cross-contact. Always read labels on packaged foods and be careful while eating in restaurants.
Peanuts may be hidden in a lot of common foods, including:
- African, Asian, and Mexican foods
- cereal and granola
Know The Signs Of An Allergic Reaction
The most common food allergy symptoms include:;
- Itchy eyes and throat
- Tingling or itching in the mouth
- Hives, itching or eczema
- Swelling of the lips, face, tongue and throat, or other parts of the body
- Wheezing, nasal congestion or trouble breathing
- Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting
- Dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting
If an individual displays any of these symptoms, he may be experiencing a food allergy, and it is important to quickly get medical attention.
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The Evolution Of Genetic Change Effect Of Epi
The specific genetic loci modulating risk of food allergy is unidentified, and there is a limited number of gene association studies . At present, the roles of genetic x genetic and genetic x environmental interactions includes promising research with focus on genes, such as FOXP3 effect on T-cells and whether this renders risk of allergic diseases. Future Investigations could allow scientists to discover the relationship between the two.
Food allergies may be caused by genetic variation. Allergies tend to run in families ; a child with a parent or sibling with peanut allergy has a 7-fold increased risk of atopy , because family members often have the same exposure to environmental factors . Atopy is the presence of an allergy, often with hereditary predisposition.
An active investigation is Epigenetics .. These alterations happen in developmental periods due to environmental factors, a reason why early exposure affects the risk of food allergy . Mechanisms include DNA methylations, which is an addition of CH3 to genes .
Peanut Allergies And Their Prevalence In Children
In recent years, the rise in peanut allergies among children has become an unfortunate phenomenon. In fact, studies suggest that the years 2010 to 2017 saw a 21% increase in reported cases in the US. With around 2.5% of children negatively impacted, many Atlanta parents are naturally wary of their childs food intake and want access to peanut allergy treatment options. But just why are so many children suffering from peanut allergies?
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What Should You Do About Legumes If You’re Allergic To Peanuts
If you are told that you have positive allergy tests to multiple legumes, you should check with your doctor before eating any of these foods.
The likelihood of having multiple life-threatening legume allergies is low, but if there is a concern, your doctor may perform an oral food challenge to any legume you are interested in eating to determine whether you are not allergic.
During an oral food challenge, you would eat a specific food that could cause an allergic reactionwith medical supervision. Your medical team would observe you for symptoms and would initiate treatment if you develop effects that require medical intervention.