What Causes Cll And Are There Risk Factors For This Disease
Experts dont exactly know what causes CLL. However, there are risk factors that increase a persons likelihood of developing CLL.
Here are some risk factors that have the potential to raise a persons likelihood of developing CLL:
- Age. CLL is rarely diagnosed in people under 40 years old. The majority of CLL cases are diagnosed in people over age 50. The average age of people diagnosed with CLL is 71.
- Sex. It affects more men than women.
- Ethnicity. Its more common in people of Russian and European descent and rarely found in people of East Asian and Southeast Asian descent.
- Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Theres a small risk that this condition, which causes higher than normal levels of lymphocytes, can turn into CLL.
- Environment. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs included exposure to Agent Orange, a chemical weapon used during the Vietnam War, as a risk factor for CLL.
- Family history. People who have immediate relatives with a CLL diagnosis have a higher risk for CLL.
Chemotherapy weakens your immune system, leaving you more vulnerable to infections. You may also develop abnormal levels of antibodies and low blood cell counts during chemotherapy.
Other common side effects of chemotherapy include:
It Is A Common Condition After Illness Known As Lymphocytosis
Lymphocytosis can be a serious problem if it persists.
Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell found in our body and play a very important role in our immune system.
These help you fight disease and keep you protected and healthy.;If you have recently been through an infection or illness, then it is common for your body to have a high lymphocyte count, also known as;lymphocytosis;.
More commonly, it means that you have a viral infection, but it can sometimes also mean an autoimmune disorder or a certain form of;cancer;or leukemia.
What Are Lymph Nodes Again
Lymph nodes are part of your lymphatic system, a network that routes lymph fluid throughout your body, according to the American Cancer Society . Your lymph system is a crucial part of your immune system.
The job of your lymph system is to collect fluid, waste material, viruses, and bacteria that are in your tissues and send them to your lymph nodes. These nodes are small structures that work as filters for harmful substances, the ACS explains. They help fight infection by attacking and destroying germs that are carried to them by lymph fluid.
You have hundreds of lymph nodes located all around your bodysome are deep in your body, like between your lungs or around your bowel, and others are closer to your skin.
After lymph fluid flows around your body, it dumps filtered fluid, salts, and proteins back into your bloodstream.
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What Are The Symptoms Of High Lymphocytes
Generally, the increase in the number of lymphocytes does not cause symptoms.
However, in people with lymphoma and certain leukemias, elevated lymphocyte counts can cause:
- Night sweats
Also, symptoms may be the result of infection or another disease that has caused the number of lymphocytes to increase, rather than the increase in lymphocytes per se.
When an infection is suspected, doctors can do blood tests.
When doctors discover increased numbers of lymphocytes, a sample of blood is examined under a microscope to determine if the lymphocytes in the blood appear activated or if they appear immature or abnormal .
Blood tests can also identify the specific type of lymphocyte that is increased to help determine the underlying problem.
Pathogenesis Of Allergic Rhinitis And Asthma
According to the World Health Organization , the burden of asthma is estimated to have 300 million cases worldwide, making it one of the commonest noncommunicable diseases. Asthma is a serious global health problem affecting all age groups, with increasing prevalence in developing countries, treatment costs, and a burden for patients and the community. The WHO ranks asthma the highest among chronic illnesses afflicting the pediatric population worldwide. Of concern is that the majority of case fatalities attributed to asthma occur among populations in underdeveloped countries characterized with weak health systems for control and management of the disease .
Whereas allergic rhinitis results from activation of mucosal mast cells, asthma is triggered by allergen activation of submucosal mast cells in the lower airways. The nature and development airway inflammation may be driven by numerous factors, including pathogenic infections, pollution, or even relatively innocuous inhaled particles, such as allergens. International guidelines are available for the management of severe asthma by the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society .
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Can Allergies Cause Swollen Lymph Nodes
Susan Besser, M.D., a primary care physician at Baltimores Mercy Medical Center, agrees. An upper respiratory infection, a cold, allergiesall can cause lymph nodes to swell as the body responds to the immunologic crisis, she explains. These are most often felt on either side of the neck, under the jaw around the throat, or behind the ears.
Children are more likely to experience swollen lymph nodes due to allergies, but it can happen in adult allergy sufferers, notes Catherine Monteleone, M.D., an allergist and immunologist at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.
That said, its not a typical symptom and it is unlikely that seasonal allergies would cause someone to have swollen lymph nodes, Dr. Parikh says. The only time that would happen is if your allergies are very severe, she notes.
It is more common, though, to develop swollen lymph nodes as part of a secondary infection from your allergies, like a sinus infection, says Omid Mehdizadeh, M.D., an otolaryngologist and laryngologist at Providence Saint Johns Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif.
What Is A Lymphocyte
Lymphocytes can be defined as white blood cells that play an integral role in the immune system of our body.
They are divided into two different categories, called T cells and B cells. Take a look at both in detail:
These cells are responsible for protecting the body against many different immune responses that include bacteria, foreign tissues, viruses, etc.;In addition, they develop substances known as cytokines to direct activities in immune cells.
As we mentioned earlier, T cells and B cells are an important part of our body.;Both help each other to protect the body against diseases.;B cells create Y-shaped proteins known as antibodies with the help of T cells.
When an infection attacks the body, the number of white blood cells increases.;In medical science, this condition is called atypical lymphocytosis.;During this disease, the body feels symptoms such as protozoa and viral infections.
Now, we can start with the real topic of this article and we will tell you in detail.
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What Is Anaphylactic Shock
Anaphylactic shock, also called anaphylaxis, is a severe, life-threatening reaction to certain allergens. Body tissues may swell, including tissues in the throat. Anaphylactic shock is also characterized by a sudden drop in blood pressure. The following are the most common symptoms of anaphylactic shock. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Other symptoms may include:
Itching and hives over most of the body
Swelling of the throat and tongue or tightness in throat
Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
How Does Understanding The Allergic Cascade Help
The most basic, and best, approach to caring for allergies is avoidance of the substances causing them, the allergens. Some allergens such as pet dander, foods, and medications are relatively easy to avoid. However, many other allergens, such as dust mites, molds, and pollens are more difficult to evade. Measures to reduce exposure to them are still essential for the optimal treatment of allergies.
The most convenient approach to the treatment of allergies involves taking various medications, such as antihistamines. The importance of histamine in allergic disease is illustrated by the effectiveness of antihistamines in preventing certain allergic symptoms. They are effective in curtailing itching, sneezing, and runny nose. However, the more severe allergic reactions and symptoms of asthma require different treatments.
Anti-inflammatory medications, such as steroids and leukotriene antagonists, may be required. Medications that widen the airways through the lungs have also been a mainstay in the treatment of asthma and are particularly useful in controlling the immediate or early phase reaction. Current research is aimed at finding medications that target specific steps in the allergic cascade.
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What Is The Normal Range For Monocytes
White blood cells live in a delicate balance. When one is high, another might be low.
Looking at monocytes alone may not give you the whole picture. Thats why each type of white blood cell will be listed as a percentage on your blood test report. This report may refer to it as a leukocyte count. Its another term for white blood cell count.
Monocytes typically make up a fairly small percentage of your white blood cells. The normal range of each type of white blood cell is:
- Monocytes: 2 to 8 percent
- Basophils: 0.5 to 1 percent
- Eosinophils: 1 to 4 percent
- Lymphocytes: 20 to 40 percent
- Neutrophils: 40 to 60 percent
- Young neutrophils : 0 to 3 percent
Your overall white blood count is likely to rise in response to:
- acute stress
- chronic inflammatory disease
- tuberculosis , a chronic respiratory disease caused by a type of bacteria
A recent study suggests a higher monocyte count may be related to cardiovascular disease, and that early detection of increased monocytes could help assess heart health management. More large-scale research is needed to confirm this.
In many cases, the balance between different types of white blood cells helps tell the tale.
For example, a
What Tests Should I Request To Confirm My Clinical Dx In Addition What Follow
In a patient without an obvious cause for lymphocytosis , it is most appropriate to simply repeat a complete blood count on a new sample to confirm that lymphocytosis is truly present. Although uncommon, sample mislabeling or laboratory error may result in an erroneous lymphocytosis that may simply disappear on repeat testing.
If lymphocytosis is present on repeat testing, the next step is to thoroughly review the remainder of the CBC for other abnormalities and ask the laboratory to review a well-made peripheral smear for lymphocyte, red cell, other leukocyte, and platelet morphology.
Review of CBC
In particular, it is important to assess the appearance of the lymphocytes. Lymphocytosis with a spectrum of lymphocyte morphology suggests a reactive process. Conversely, a monomorphic appearance to the lymphoid population suggests a clonal lymphoproliferation.
In children, lymphocytosis associated with anemia or thrombocytopenia mandates an evaluation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, as the morphology of lymphoblasts may be subtle and there may be a spectrum of lymphoid morphology present. The association with other cytopenias may suggest marrow replacement and warrants evaluation.
Additionally, it is important to look for any of the following in association with the lymphocytosis: neutropenia, eosinophilia, monocytopenia, anemia, or thrombocytopenia.
Review of the Peripheral Smear
History and Physical Examination
Such a history may contain:
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Whats The Outlook For People With All
A variety of factors determines a persons outlook. They include age, ALL subtype, WBC count, and whether or not ALL has spread to nearby organs or cerebrospinal fluid.
Survival rates for adults arent as high as survival rates for children, but theyre steadily improving.
According to the American Cancer Society, between 80 and 90 percent of adults with ALL go into remission. However, about half of them see their leukemia return. They note the overall cure rate for adults with ALL is 40 percent. An adult is considered cured if theyve been in remission for five years.
Children with ALL stand a very good chance of being cured.
Theres no confirmed cause of ALL. However, you can avoid several risk factors for it, such as:
- radiation exposure
New Study Suggests Crucial Role For Lymphocytes In Asymptomatic Covid
COVID-19 remains stubbornly inconsistent. More than a million people have died and 35 million have been diagnosed, but a large fraction of people infected with the coronavirusabout 45%, according to recent estimatesshow no symptoms at all.
A retrospective study of 52 COVID-19 patients, published this week in mSphere, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, may help researchers better understand why not everyone show symptoms of the disease. The study’s authors found that asymptomatic patients hosted viral loads comparable to those of symptomatic patients, but asymptomatic patients showed higher levels of lymphocytes , cleared the viral particles faster, and had lower risks of long-term complications. Further analyses suggested the interaction between the virus and the immune system likely played a role in that process.
“Our findings suggested an important role for lymphocytes, especially T cells, in controlling virus shedding,” said virologist Yuchen Xia, Ph.D., at Wuhan University’s School of Basic Medical Sciences, in China, who worked on the new study.
Xia’s group recently began collaborating on a larger follow-up study with researchers in Germany, analyzing blood samples from more than 100 patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms and 30 patients with mild symptoms. They also plan to conduct animal studies to better understand the role of T cells in viral shedding.
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How Does A Person Become Allergic
Allergens can be inhaled, ingested, or enter through the skin. Common allergic reactions, such as hay fever, certain types of asthma, and hives are linked to an antibody produced by the body called immunoglobulin E . Each IgE antibody can be very specific, reacting against certain pollens and other allergens. In other words, a person can be allergic to one type of pollen, but not another. When a susceptible person is exposed to an allergen, the body starts producing a large quantity of similar IgE antibodies. The next exposure to the same allergen may result in an allergic reaction. Symptoms of an allergic reaction will vary depending on the type and amount of allergen encountered and the manner in which the body’s immune system reacts to that allergen.
Allergies can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Generally, allergies are more common in children. However, a first-time occurrence can happen at any age, or recur after many years of remission. Hormones, stress, smoke, perfume, or environmental irritants may also play a role in the development or severity of allergies.
The Respiratory Airway Cells/mucosal Immunology
There are several cells in the epithelium of the lower respiratory tract. The upper part includes support cells , mucous-secreting cells, and the cilia, to aid the expulsion of mucous. However, Clara cells and cilia dominate in the lower parts of the respiratory system .
Some of these cells are involved in inflammatory allergic responses in asthma. For instance, in asthma the goblet cells, i.e., mucous-secreting cells, increased the number of goblet cells as part of airway remodeling. The mucus aggravates the immunopathology of asthma. The function of mucous is to trap inhaled particles/allergen and the interaction with the tips of beating cilia and remove particles/allergen from the airways, a process termed mucociliary clearance . Other cells such as the neuroendocrine cells are not directly involved in the immunopathogenesis of asthma. Neuroendocrine cells contain characteristic granules and secrete hormones and peptides such as serotonin.
In particular, lymphoid tissues are mainly found in the bronchial. Thus during an asthmatic attack, the airways are remodeled , which is characterized by swelling, cellular infiltration, and hyperplasia of smooth muscles and goblet cells .
The adaptation of the epithelial airways and smooth muscle cells to allergic and/or noxious stimuli compromises the structure and function of the airways .
3.3.1 Allergic rhinitis and mediators of the inflammatory response
3.3.2 Allergen exposure
3.3.3 United airway hypothesis/disease
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How To Diagnose Atypical Lymphocytes
There are no specific medications or treatments through which enlarged reactive lymphocytes can be treated.;To diagnose this condition, doctors will discover the exact reason that results in the development of these types of lymphocytes.
The specialists will usually perform different types of blood tests to check the number of lymphocytes present in the body.
In addition, they will undergo a peripheral blood smear if they saw any signs of an increase in the number of atypical lymphocytes.;During this test, they will smear the blood sample in a glass and then dry it before dyeing it with a dye.
These types of cells stain a very dark blue color compared to normal white blood cells that stain a light blue color.
After completing the diagnostic process, doctors will make a decision about which antibiotic should be prescribed to reduce the number of cells.;In addition to medications, doctors also advise the patient to eat healthy foods and take vitamin supplements.
How Do You Know If You Have An Elevated Lymphocyte Count
Usually, the person who has a high lymphocyte count, a condition that is medically known as lymphocytosis, does not show physical symptoms.
This means that you will never know unless you have a blood test for another reason, and your doctor identifies it alongside.;There is also no treatment for the condition, and it can only be managed by managing the underlying cause.
Once the tests are done, if you have noticed that you have a high lymphocyte count, it is very important that you bring the results to your GP so that more tests can be done to determine the cause.
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